Dr. N. Ramesh Key Note Speaker INFES- 2019

Dr. N. Ramesh

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Biosciences and Technology,

Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Title of presentation: Antibiotic resistance and Phage therapy

Abstract

Treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections is a challenging issue for modern medicine.  Alternative therapeutic strategies to treat antibiotic-resistant pathogens are in demand due to the increasing infections caused by multiple drug resistant bacteria. Phage therapy is found to be a potential alternative to antibiotics owing to its advantage over conventional therapies. Phage therapy is the clinical use of bacteriophages to treat infections caused by bacteria. We are currently working on the Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and the isolation of potential phages against pathogenic GNBs. A total of 478 non-repetitive, GNBs that includes E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, P. mirabilis, S. typhi, E. cloacae were collected from Chennai and Trichy in Tamil Nadu, India. Resistance screening found that266 isolates werecarbapenem-resistant and 43 isolates werecolistin-resistant. Prevalence of carbapenem-resistant genes was found in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae and P. aeruginosa. Role of integrons in transferring resistance were studied and found that resistant isolates were encoded with class-1, 2, 3integrons. Plasmid-borne resistance genes in E. coli and K. pneumoniae were found to be involving in intra- and inter-genus transformation through transconjugation studies. For isolation of bacteriophages, MDR GNBs were chosen and all the isolated phages were characterized. A total of five novel phages were isolated against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, E. hormaechei and A. baumannii. Therapeutic characterization results showed that all the isolated phages having lytic activity, virulent by morphological characterization, selection based on EOP assay, broad host range specificity and stable at varying conditions. Our research showed the potential of phages as a replacement for antibiotics and against developing multiple drug resistance in bacteria. Further research is needed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of these phages in in vivo animal model and in the future phage therapy will be the possible alternative to replace antibiotic therapy.

Keywords: Phage Therapy, Multidrug resistance, Bacteriophage

Biography:  Dr.N.Ramesh presently working as Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Sciences, VIT. He has published 40 research papers, 2 book chapter and submitted more than 168 genes (MDR and 16S r RNA) and 5 class I integrons in NCBI GenBank. Further he is supervising 5 PhD students and 30 and 120 students from B.Tech, M.Tech, and M.Sc., He has established an Antibiotic Resistance and Phage therapy Laboratory in SMV-203 A in the DST SERB project. He has collaborations with – Adnan Menderes University, Aydin, Turkey, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, AUSTRALIA, Lincoln University College, Malaysia, The Hospital for Sick Children/ University of Toronto, Canada and  Loma Linda University, California, United States,The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, Karolinska Institute, Sweden which deals with the range of antimicrobial resistance in clinical samples.